Saturday, August 20, 2016

Waste Incineration as an Alternative to More Landfills

There are several types of waste incineration plants. The most common type is municipal solid waste (MSW) with the heat providing energy from waste. This is becoming more necessary in many countries throughout the world as we all run out of land-fill sites for our household rubbish.

Incineration of waste is not a new process, but the rules and regulations regarding emission of the resultant pollutants to the atmosphere have been tightened and upgraded. This is due to the fumes produced containing dioxin particulates and heavy metals, both of which are dangers to public health.

The following sections examine the incineration of municipal solid waste incorporating a waste heat boiler to recover some of the energy from waste (EfW). The first section gives a brief overview of waste management techniques and strategies.

Waste Management – an Overview

Waste management plays an important role in the disposal of our waste in an environmentally efficient, safe manner.

There are a number of basic means of disposing of our waste.

Here materials such as paper, glass, plastic, aluminum, and tin cans are sorted by the householder and collected from the curbside outside their property. Vegetation, grass and hedge clippings are collected for composting; the remaining waste is sent to a landfill or an incineration plant.
Incineration (after sorting)

Here the recyclable materials are removed before incineration as per the above method.
Incineration (non-sorted)

In this method all the municipal waste is incinerated without segregation of recyclable materials, with the ferrous metals being extracted from furnace bottom ash by magnets.

Land-fill usage is either banned or being phased out in major countries of the Western World. DOE and EU legislation has made this method of disposal very expensive through the introduction of a levy per ton for disposal. At the same time, old disused landfill sites produce a gas that can be processed to run gas turbine/engines driving electric generators providing power to the local grid.

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